Energy is required in all stages of water production and distribution, from pumping and storage to treatment and transportation. In the United States, wastewater plants and drinking water systems spend about US $4 billion per year on energy associated with the chemical treatment of the water supply. After personnel costs, energy consumption is the second highest OPEX cost for water utilities. It typically represents 25-30% of a utility's total O&M costs. Regarding energy costs, pumping raw and treated water typically constitutes more than 90% of all energy use by water utilities. As water utilities deal with energy-intensive processes, they are increasingly interested in adopting sustainable and green solutions in order to minimise energy consumption for water production and treatment.
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